Inscriptions on Demolished Hindu Temples: Epigraphic Evidence

There are many mosques all over India which are known to local tradition and the Archaeological Survey of India as built on the site of and, quite frequently, from the materials of, demolished Hindu temples. Most of them carry inscriptions invoking Allah and the Prophet, quoting the Quran and giving details of when, how and by whom they were constructed. The inscriptions have been deciphered and connected to their historical context by learned Muslim epigraphists. They have been published by the, Archaeological Survey of India in its Epigraphia Indica-Arabic and Persian Supplement, an annual which appeared first in 1907-08 as Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica.

Inscription on 4th A.D ( 1700 Year Old ) Iron Pillar In Sanskrit written in Brahmi Script @ Qutab minar

The following few inscriptions have been selected in order to show that:-
(1) destruction of Hindu temples continued throughout the period of Muslim domination;
(2) it covered all parts of India-east, west, north and south; and
(3) all Muslim dynasties, imperial and provincial, participated in the “pious performance.”

1. Quwwat al-Islam Masjid, Qutb Minar, Delhi: “This fort was conquered and the Jami Masjid built in the year 587 by the Amir… the slave of the Sultan, may Allalh strengthen his helpers. The materials of 27 idol temples, on each of which 2,000,000 Delhiwals had been spent were used in the (construction of) the mosque…” (1909-10, Pp 3-4). The Amir was Qutbud-Din Aibak, slave of Muizzud-Din Muhammad Ghori. The year 587 H. corresponds to 1192 A.D. “Delhiwal” was a high-denomination coin current at that time in Delhi.

2. Masjid at Manvi in the Raichur District of Karnataka: “Praise be to Allah that by the decree of the Parvardigar, a mosque has been converted out of a temple as a sign of religion in the reign of… the Sultan who is the asylum of Faith … Firuz Shah Bahmani who is the cause of exuberant spring in the garden of religion” (1962, Pp. 56-57). The inscription mentions the year 1406-07 A.D. as the time of construction.

3. Jami Masjid at Malan, Palanpur Taluka, Banaskantha District of Gujarat: “The Jami Masjid was built… by Khan-I-Azam Ulugh Khan… who suppressed the wretched infidels. He eradicated the idolatrous houses and mine of infidelity, along with the idols… with the edge of the sword, and made ready this edifice… He made its walls and doors out of the idols; the back of every stone became the place for prostration of the believer” (1963, Pp. 26-29). The date of construction is mentioned as 1462 A.D. in the reign of Mahmud Shah I (Begada) of Gujarat.

4. Hammam Darwaza Masjid at Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh: “Thanks that by the guidance of the Everlasting and the Living (Allah), this house of infidelity became the niche of prayer. As a reward for that, the Generous Lord constructed an abode for the builder in paradise” (1969, p. 375). Its chronogram yields the year 1567 A.D. in the reign of Akbar, the Great Mughal. A local historian, Fasihud-Din, tells us that the temple had been built earlier by Diwan Lachhman Das, an official of the Mughal government.

5. Jami Masjid at Ghoda in the Poona District of Maharashtra: “O Allah! 0 Muhammad! O Ali! When Mir Muhammad Zaman made up his mind, he opened the door of prosperity on himself by his own hand. He demolished thirty-three idol temples (and) by divine grace laid the foundation of a building in this abode of perdition” (1933-34, p.24). The inscription is dated 1586 A.D. when the Poona region was ruled by the Nizam Shahi sultans of Ahmadnagar.

6. Gachinala Masjid at Cumbum in the Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh: “He is Allah, may he be glorified… During the august rule of… Muhammad Shah, there was a well-established idol-house in Kuhmum… Muhammad Salih who prospers in the rectitude of the affairs of Faith… razed to the ground, the edifice of the idol-house and broke the idols in a manly fashion. He constructed on its site a suitable mosque, towering above the buildings of all” (1959-60, Pp. 64-66). The date of construction is mentioned as 1729-30 A.D. in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.

Though sites of demolished Hindu temples were mostly used for building mosques and idgahs, temple materials were often used in other Muslim monuments as well. Archaeologists have discovered such materials, architectural as well as sculptural, in quite a few forts, palaces, maqbaras, sufi khanqahs, madrasas, etc. In Srinagar, Kashmir, temple materials can be seen in long stretches of the stone embankments on both sides of the Jhelum. Two inscriptions on the walls of the Gopi Talav, a stepped well at Surat, tell us that the well was constructed by Haidar Quli, the Mughal governor of Gujarat, in 1718 A.D. in the reign of Farrukh Siyar. One of them says, “its bricks were taken from an idol temple.” The other informs us that “Haider Quli Khan, during whose period tyranny has become extinct, laid waste several idol temples in order to make this strong building firm…” (1933-34, Pp. 37-44).

Literary Evidence

Literary evidence of Islamic iconoclasm vis-a-vis Hindu places of worship is far more extensive.  It covers a longer span of time, from the fifth decade of the 7th century to the closing years of the eighteenth.  It also embraces a larger space, from Transoxiana in the north to Tamil Nadu in the south, and from Afghanistan in the west to Assam in the east.  Marxist “historians” and Muslim apologists would have us believe that medieval Muslim annalists were indulging in poetic exaggerations in order to please their pious patrons.  Archaeological explorations in modern times have, however, provided physical proofs of literary descriptions.  The vast cradle of Hindu culture is literally littered with ruins of temples and monasteries belonging to all sects of Sanatana Dharma – Buddhist, Jain, Saiva, Shakta, Vaishnava and the rest.

Almost all medieval Muslim historians credit their heroes with desecration of Hindu idols and/or destruction of Hindu temples.  The picture that emerges has the following components, depending upon whether the iconoclast was in a hurry on account of Hindu resistance or did his work at leisure after a decisive victory:

1. The idols were mutilated or smashed or burnt or melted down if they were made of precious metals.

2. Sculptures in relief on walls and pillars were disfigured or scraped away or torn down.

3. Idols of stone and inferior metals or their pieces were taken away, sometimes by cartloads, to be thrown down before the main mosque in (a) the metropolis of the ruling Muslim sultan and (b) the holy cities of Islam, particularly Mecca, Medina and Baghdad.

4. There were instances of idols being turned into lavatory seats or handed over to butchers to be used as weights while selling meat.

5. Brahmin priests and other holy men in and around the temple were molested or murdered.

6. Sacred vessels and scriptures used in worship were defiled and scattered or burnt.

7. Temples were damaged or despoiled or demolished or burnt down or converted into mosques with some structural alterations or entire mosques were raised on the same sites mostly with temple materials.

8. Cows were slaughtered on the temple sites so that Hindus could not use them again.

The literary sources, like epigraphic, provide evidence of the elation which Muslims felt while witnessing or narrating these “pious deeds.” A few citations from Amir Khusru will illustrate the point. The instances cited relate to the doings of Jalalud-Din Firuz Khalji, Alaud-Din Khalji and the letter’s military commanders. Khusru served as a court-poet of sex successive sultans at Delhi and wrote amasnavi in praise of each.  He was the dearest disciple of Shaikh Nizamud-Din Awliya and has come to be honoured as some sort of a sufi himself.  In our own times, he is being hailed is the father of a composite Hindu-Muslim culture and the pioneer of secularism.  Dr. R. C. Majumdar, whom the Marxists malign as a “communalist historian” names him as a “liberal Muslim”.

1. Jhain: “Next morning he (Jalalud-Din) went again to the temples and ordered their destruction… While the soldiers sought every opportunity of plundering, the Shah was engaged in burning the temples and destroying the idols.  There were two bronze idols of Brahma, each of which weighed more than a thousand mans.  These were broken into pieces and the fragments were distributed among the officers, with orders to throw them down at the gates of the Masjid on their return (to Delhi)” (Miftah-ul-Futuh).

2. Devagiri: “He (Alaud-Din) destroyed the temples of the idolaters and erected pulpits and arches for mosques” (Ibid.).

3. Somanath: “They made the temple prostrate itself towards the Kaaba.  You may say that the temple first offered its prayers and then had a bath (i.e. the temple was made to topple and fall into the sea)… He (Ulugh Khan) destroyed all the idols and temples, but sent one idol, the biggest of all idols, to the court of his Godlike Majesty and on that account in that ancient stronghold of idolatry, the summons to prayers was proclaimed so loudly that they heard it in Misr (Egypt) and Madain (Iraq)” (Tarikh-i-Alai).

4. Delhi: “He (Alaud-Din) ordered the circumference of the new minar to be made double of the old one (Qutb Minar)… The stones were dug out from the hills and the temples of the infidels were demolished to furnish a supply” (Ibid.).

5. Ranthambhor: “This strong fort was taken by the slaughter of the stinking Rai.  Jhain was also captured, an iron fort, an ancient abode of idolatry, and a new city of the people of the faith arose.  The temple of Bahir (Bhairava) Deo and temples of other gods, were all razed to the ground” (Ibid.).

6. Brahmastpuri (Chidambaram): “Here he (Malik Kafur) heard that in Bramastpuri there was a golden idol… He then determined on razing the temple to the ground… It was the holy place of the Hindus which the Malik dug up from its foundations with the greatest care, and the heads of brahmans and idolaters danced from their necks and fell to the ground at their feet, and blood flowed in torrents.  The stone idols called Ling Mahadeo, which had been established a long time at the place and on which the women of the infidels rubbed their vaginas for (sexual) satisfaction, these, up to this time, the kick of the horse of Islam had not attempted to break.  The Musulmans destroyed in the lings and Deo Narain fell down, and other gods who had fixed their seats there raised feet and jumped so high that at one leap they reached the fort of Lanka, and in that affright the lings themselves would have fled had they had any legs to stand on” (Ibid).

7. Madura: “They found the city empty for the Rai had fled with the Ranis, but had left two or three hundred elephants in the temple of Jagnar (Jagannatha).  The elephants were captured and the temple burnt” (Ibid.).

8. Fatan: (Pattan): “There was another rai in these parts …a Brahmin named Pandya Guru… his capital was Fatan, where there was a temple with an idol in it laden with jewels.  The rai fled when the army of the Sultan arrived at Fatan… They then struck the idol with an iron hatchet, and opened its head.  Although it was the very Qibla of the accursed infidels, it kissed the earth and filled the holy treasury” (Ashiqa).

9. Ma’bar: (Parts of South India): “On the right hand and on the left hand the army has conquered from sea to sea, and several capitals of the gods of the Hindus, in which Satanism has prevailed since the time of the Jinns, have been demolished.  All these impurities of infidelity have been cleansed by the Sultan’s destruction of idol-temples, beginning with his first holy expedition to Deogir, so that the flames of the light of the Law (of Islam) illumine all these unholy countries, and places for the criers of prayers are exalted on high, and prayers are read in mosques.  Allah be praised!” (Tarikh-i-Alai).

The story of how Islamic invaders sought to destroy the very foundations of Hindu society and culture is long and extremely painful.  It would certainly be better for everybody to forget the past, but for the prescriptions of Islamic theology which remain intact and make it obligatory for believers to destroy idols and idol temples.

– Sitaram Goel

Courtesy:- Indian Express, February 19, 1989

http://cpdarshi.wordpress.com/2012/07/15/1004/

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Sri Sri Ravi Shanker on Hate Speech by politician

Q: Guruji, these days everybody is giving hate speeches and creating turmoil in people’s minds, and then they get arrested for it. No political leader is giving any love speech. What to do?

Sri Sri Ravi Shankar: Now, first of all, you have to take back that word everybody. Everybody is not doing it. There are some people, one or two, here and there. They do such things, because only then the media will pick them up. The hate speeches are picked by the media. They want media attention, so they do it. And if they get arrested, they become a hero within a particular community. What can you do? They go for negative publicity because they cannot get any positive publicity. So the easy way to get negative publicity is to go and blabber something about somebody, or give some hate speech somewhere. Surprisingly, so many people clap for that, because it is a thrill for them. Sweetie-sweetie talk, some good love stories don’t interest people. ‘Hey come, let’s punch that guy’, and everybody agrees. This is what is called mob psychology. The mob is interested in doing something destructive in the world. Never ever has a mob done something constructive; mob has always brought destruction. Sometime destruction may be essential. One such example was the Freedom Movement, when they wanted to root out this colonial system. So the mob joined, but peacefully. And why is that? The leader was a spiritual man – Mahatma Gandhi. He would do satsang, just like what we are doing. Every day there would be singing, meditation and discussions on the issues of the country, and the world those days. So there was a movement to dismantle the current regime, but without bloodshed, without violence. It was a unique thing in the history, where the mobs gathered but didn’t destroy anything, didn’t bring pain or suffering to anybody. The same type of mob is happening now all over the world. In the Arab Spring, see what is happening? People are killing each other and there is so much suffering. I am dreaming of a very different aspect. I want people to come up with creative ideas and plans. A seed for one such revolution was sown on 3 February, in Delhi, where the gathering who attended the event was three times more than that of the anti-corruption movement. A record crowd gathered together, and took a pledge to do something constructive. The government was a little concerned and they posted so many police. Everybody was screened when they were coming in, and so it took a long time for people to come in and go out. However, everyone was so surprised that there was no blame game, no hate speech; everyone joined to do something very constructive. Our youth have this energy, we only need to channelize it. Can you imagine, just in a matter of 2 months, with no resources at all, 1,000 projects were completed in Delhi? These were 1,000 small projects that were completed in 17 slums adopted by The Art of Living. So the volunteers have started working in 100 slums now. India is wobbling between scams and slums, and we need this sort of enthusiasm in people to do something creative. There is a river here which is called Kumudavati, which has almost dried up. So, some of our volunteers have taken up the task of re-energizing the river from the source, through all the twelve tehsils (similar to a county) that the river moves through. It is a very good initiative and it will help solve the water problems of so many villages. Water level has gone down. It used to be 20 to 30 feet, now it has gone down to 600 feet, so much below! So these volunteers are going to re-energize that! They are doing rain water harvesting, and all things necessary to re-energize it. One would have to spend crores of rupees on such projects. But people are using their own petrol, and going by their own cars, and doing the work. This is the joy, the intoxication of service. Also, two of our volunteers here today have announced the signing of a project wherein they are planning to build 1,000 toilets for the poor people.

फालतुगिरी

हम भारतीयों के कुछ विशेष पहिचान !!

1. हम बिना प्याज, हरी मिर्च या चटनी के कुछ नहीं खा सकते।

2. हम गिफ़्ट रैपिंग पेपर, गिफ़्ट बॉक्स को संभाल कर रखते हैं दुबारा इस्तेमाल के लिये।

3.हम एयरपोर्ट पर 2 बड़े सुटकेस के साथ दिखेंगे।

4. हम किसी भी पार्टी में 2 घंटे देर से जाने को सामान्य मानते हैं।

5. हमारे बच्चो के कई पुकारु नाम होते हैं, जिनका असली नाम से कोई रिश्ता नहीं होता।

6. हम किसी के घर से निकल कर एक घंटे तक उसके दरवाजे पर खड़ा हो कर बात करते हैं।

7. हम परिवार के साथ कहीं जायेंगे तो कार में उसकी क्षमता से अधिक, अधिकतम जितना हो सके उतने अधिक सदस्यों को ठूसेगे ।

8. हम घर के सभी नये सामान (टी.वी., डी.वी.डी., रिमोर्ट, कंप्युटर, आदि) को प्लास्टिक लगा कर रखना पसंद करते हैं।

9.अगर कोई लड़की अपनी बेटी ना हो तो, वो किसके साथ भागी, किसका किसके साथ अफ़ेयर है, आदि बातों में विशेष रुचि लेते हैं.

10.अगर बच्चे हम से दुर रहते हैं तोरात को 12 बजे भी फ़ोन में बात होगी तो ये जरुर पुछेंगे की खाना खाया या नहीं।

11.हम सोफ़ा को गंदा होने से बचाने के लिये उस पर बेड शीट डाल कर रखेंगे भले वो बैठते ही नीचे सरक जाये ।

12.शादी में 500 से कम व्यक्तियों को बुलाये बिना नहीं रह सकते क्यों की ऐसा करने से शादी में प्लेट के लिए मचने वाली भगदड़ खाने का स्वाद बढ़ा देती है ।

13. दुसरो के व्यक्तिगत मुद्दे में टांग अड़ाना हमारा जन्म सिद्ध अधिकार है।

14. ऐसी बाते पढ़ कर हमे बहुत मजा आताहै, क्योंकि ये सब हमारी ज़िंदगी का हिस्सा है।

‘गर्भपात’

गर्भपात करवानागलत माना गया है,कृपया इस लेख
को अवश्य पढ़े और अगर इसे पढ़ कर आपके दिल
की धड़कने बढ़ जाये तो शेयर अवश्य करे |

गर्भस्थ बच्ची की हत्या का आँखोँ देखा विवरण…
अमेरिका मेँ सन 1984 मेँ एक सम्मेलन हुआ था
‘नेशनल राइट्स टू लाईफ कन्वैन्शन’ ।
इस सम्मेलन के एक प्रतिनिधि ने डॉ॰ बर्नार्ड नेथेनसन के
द्वारा गर्भपातकी बनायी गयी एक अल्ट्रासाउण्ड फिल्म
‘साइलेण्ट स्क्रीम’ (गूँगी चीख) का जो विवरणदिया था,
वह इस प्रकार है-
‘ गर्भ की वह मासूम बच्ची अभी दस सप्ताह की थी व
काफी चुस्त थी ।
हम उसे अपनी माँ की कोख मेँ खेलते, करवट बदलते व
अंगूठा चूसते हुए देख रहे थे ।
उसके दिल की धड़कनोँ को भी हम देख पा रहे थेऔर वह उस
समय 120 की साधारण गति से धड़करहा था ।
सब कुछ बिलकुल सामान्य था; किँतु जैसे ही पहले औजार
(सक्सन पम्प) ने गर्भाशय की दीवार को छुआ, वहमासूम
बच्ची डर से एकदम घूमकर सिकुड़ गयी और उसके दिल
की धड़कन काफी बढ़ गयी ।
हलाँकिअभी तक किसी औजार ने बच्ची को छुआ तक
भी नहीँ था, लेकिन उसे अनुभव हो गया था कि कोई चीज
उसके आरामगाह, उसके सुरक्षित क्षेत्र पर हमला करने
का प्रयत्न कर रही है ।
हम दहशत से भरे यह देख रहे थे किकिस तरह वह औजार
उस नन्हीँ- मुन्नी मासुम गुड़िया-सी बच्ची के टुकड़े-टुकड़े कर
रहा था ।
पहले कमर, फिर पैर आदि के टुकड़े ऐसे काटे जा रहे थे जैसे
वह जीवित प्राणी न होकर कोई गाजर-मूली हो और वह
बच्ची दर्द से छटपटाती हुई, सिकुड़कर घूम-घूमकर
तड़पती हुई इस हत्यारे औजार से बचने का प्रयत्न कर
रही थी ।
वह इस बुरी तरह डर गयी थी कि एक समय उसके दिल
की धड़कन200 तक पहुँच गयी ! मैँने स्वयं अपनी आँखोँ से
उसको अपना सिर पीछे झटकते व मुँह खोलकर चीखने
का प्रयत्न करते हुए देखा, जिसे डॉ॰ नेथेनसन ने उचित
ही ‘गूँगी चीख’ या ‘मूक पुकार’ कहा है ।
अंत मेँ हमने वह नृशंस व वीभत्स दृश्य भी देखा, जब
सँडसी उसकी खोपड़ी को तोड़ने के लिए तलाश रही थी और
फिर दबाकर उस कठोर खोपड़ी को तोड़ रही थी; क्योँकि सिर
का वह भाग बगैर तोड़े सक्शन ट्यूब के माध्यम से बाहर
नहीँ निकाला जा सकता था ।’
हत्या के इस वीभत्स खेलको सम्पन्न करने मेँ करीब पन्द्रह
मिनट का समय लगा और इसके दर्दनाक दृश्य का अनुमान
इससे अधिक और कैसे लगाया जा सकता है कि जिस डॉक्टर
ने यह गर्भपात किया था और जिसने मात्र कौतूहलवश
इसकी फिल्म बनवा ली थी, उसनेजब स्वयं इस फिल्म
को देखा तो वह अपना क्लीनिक छोड़कर चला गया और फिर
वापस नहीँ आया !
-गीताप्रेस से प्रकाशित ‘गर्भपात’ नामक पुस्तक से…

STORY – inspirational encounter with a rickshaw driver in Mumbai:

Suvendu Roy of Titan Industries, who shares his inspirational encounter with a rickshaw driver in Mumbai:

… One Sunday, my wife, kid, and I had to travel to Andheri from Bandra. When I waved at a passing auto rickshaw, little did I expect that this ride would be any different…

I looked in front and there was a small TV. The driver had put on the Doordarshan channel.

My wife and I looked at each other with disbelief and amusement. In front of me was a small first-aid box with cotton, dettol and some medicines.

This was enough for me to realize that I was in a special vehicle.

Then I looked round again, and discovered more – there was a radio, fire extinguisher, wall clock, calendar, and pictures and symbols of all faiths

– from Islam and Christianity to Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism.

There were also pictures of the heroes of 26/11- Kamte, Salaskar, Karkare and Unnikrishnan.

I realized that not only my vehicle, but also my driver was special.

I started chatting with him and the initial sense of ridicule and disbelief gradually diminished.

I gathered that he had been driving an auto rickshaw for the past 8-9 years; he had lost his job when his employer’s plastic company was shut down.

He had two school-going children, and he drove from 8 in the morning till 10 at night.

No break unless he was unwell. “Sahab, ghar mein baith ke T.V dekh kar kya faida? Do paisa income karega toh future mein kaam aayega.”

We realized that we had come across a man who represents Mumbai – the spirit of work, the spirit of travel and the spirit of excelling in life.

I asked him whether he does anything else as I figured that he did not have too much spare time.

He said that he goes to an old age home for women in Andheri once a week or whenever he has some extra income, where he donates tooth brushes, toothpastes, soap, hair oil, and other items of daily use.

He pointed out to a painted message below the meter that read: “25 per cent discount on metered fare for the handicapped.

Free rides for blind passengers up to Rs. 50.

My wife and I were struck with awe. The man was a HERO!

A hero who deserves all our respect!!!

Our journey came to an end;

45 minutes of a lesson in humility, selflessness, and of a hero-worshipping Mumbai, my temporary home.

We disembarked, and all I could do was
to pay him a tip that would hardly cover a
free ride for a blind man.

I hope, one day, you too have a chance to meet Mr Sandeep Bachhe in his auto rickshaw: MH-02-Z-8508.

Be a Reason for Million Smiles….But Never be a reason for even a single Grudge…


April Fools’ Day: Origin and History

April Fools’ Day: Origin and History

The uncertain origins of a foolish day

by David Johnson and Shmuel Ross

April Fools’ Day, sometimes called All Fools’ Day, is one of the most light-hearted days of the year. Its origins are uncertain. Some see it as a celebration related to the turn of the seasons, while others believe it stems from the adoption of a new calendar.

New Year’s Day Moves

Ancient cultures, including those of the Romans and Hindus, celebrated New Year’s Day on or around April 1. It closely follows the vernal equinox (March 20th or March 21st.) In medieval times, much of Europe celebrated March 25, the Feast of Annunciation, as the beginning of the new year.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII ordered a new calendar (the Gregorian Calendar) to replace the old Julian Calendar. The new calendar called for New Year’s Day to be celebrated Jan. 1. That year, France adopted the reformed calendar and shifted New Year’s day to Jan. 1. According to a popular explanation, many people either refused to accept the new date, or did not learn about it, and continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on April 1. Other people began to make fun of these traditionalists, sending them on “fool’s errands” or trying to trick them into believing something false. Eventually, the practice spread throughout Europe.

Problems With This Explanation

There are at least two difficulties with this explanation. The first is that it doesn’t fully account for the spread of April Fools’ Day to other European countries. The Gregorian calendar was not adopted by England until 1752, for example, but April Fools’ Day was already well established there by that point. The second is that we have no direct historical evidence for this explanation, only conjecture, and that conjecture appears to have been made more recently.

Constantine and Kugel

Another explanation of the origins of April Fools’ Day was provided by Joseph Boskin, a professor of history at Boston University. He explained that the practice began during the reign of Constantine, when a group of court jesters and fools told the Roman emperor that they could do a better job of running the empire. Constantine, amused, allowed a jester named Kugel to be king for one day. Kugel passed an edict calling for absurdity on that day, and the custom became an annual event.
“In a way,” explained Prof. Boskin, “it was a very serious day. In those times fools were really wise men. It was the role of jesters to put things in perspective with humor.”
This explanation was brought to the public’s attention in an Associated Press article printed by many newspapers in 1983. There was only one catch: Boskin made the whole thing up. It took a couple of weeks for the AP to realize that they’d been victims of an April Fools’ joke themselves.

Spring Fever

It is worth noting that many different cultures have had days of foolishness around the start of April, give or take a couple of weeks. The Romans had a festival named Hilaria on March 25, rejoicing in the resurrection of Attis. The Hindu calendar has Holi, and the Jewish calendar has Purim. Perhaps there’s something about the time of year, with its turn from winter to spring, that lends itself to lighthearted celebrations.

Observances Around the World

April Fools’ Day is observed throughout the Western world. Practices include sending someone on a “fool’s errand,” looking for things that don’t exist; playing pranks; and trying to get people to believe ridiculous things.
The French call April 1 Poisson d’Avril, or “April Fish.” French children sometimes tape a picture of a fish on the back of their schoolmates, crying “Poisson d’Avril” when the prank is discovered.

Source – http://www.infoplease.com/spot/aprilfools1.html

हनुमान चालीसा«««««««

हनुमान चालीसा«««««««

इसमें 40 चौपाइयां हैं । सभी चालीसा इसी के बाद भिन्न भिन्न देवी 

देवताओं के नाम पर रचे गये हैं ;

क्योंकि इसकी गुणवत्ता और व्यापक प्रचार प्रसार ने अन्यान्य उपासकों 

एवं कवियों में चालीसा निर्माण की ललक जगा दी । अस्तु ।

हम यहां यह विचार कर रहे हैं कि परम हनुमद्भक्त पूज्य गोस्वामी 

तुलसीदास जी महाराज ने इसमें 40 चौपाइयां ही क्यों रचीं ?

इससे अधिक या कम क्यों नहीं ?

नाम तो चौपाइयों के आधार पर हनुमान पचासा , हनुमानपैंतीसा आदि भी 

रख सकते थे ।

40 संख्या को इतना अधिक महत्त्व देना निश्चित ही साभिप्राय है ।

कुछ महीने पूर्व ब्यावर में एक स्थान पर सवालाख हनुमान चालीसा का 

पाठ और श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि रामायण की कथा का आयोजन 9 दिनों के लिए 

रखा गया था ।

वहां हनुमान जी को कथा सुनाने का सौभाग्य मुझे ही मिला था ।

आयोजक ने मुझे चालीसा का महत्त्व बतलाने का आग्रह किया । उस 

समय मारुति की कृपा से जो तथ्य प्रतीत हुए ।

उसे लिपिबद्ध कर रहा हूं । विद्वज्जन इस पर अपना परामर्श

“सिद्धस्य गतिश्चिन्तनीया” उक्ति को समक्ष रखकर अवश्य दें ।

मानवजीवन का परम लक्ष्य है –भगवद्धाम की प्राप्ति ;क्योंकि वहां जाकर 

पुनः संसार में लौटना नहीं पड़ता है —

“यद् गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम” ।। –गीता,15/6,

ब्रह्मा जी के लोक तक को प्राप्त करके जीव को पुनः संसार में आकर 

भटकना पड़ता है —

“आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन । –गीता,8/16,

अतः पुनरागमन से छूटने के लिए प्रत्येक जीव को ब्रह्म–भगवान् की प्राप्ति 

आवश्यक है । इस के अतिरिक्त कोई मार्ग नही — 

“तमेव विदित्वाऽतिमृत्युमेति नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय”

–श्वेताश्वतर,3/8

अत एव ब्रह्मतत्त्व की प्राप्ति आवश्यक है और उसके धाम से लौटकर संसार 


में पुनः भटकना भी नही पड़ता ।

वस्तुतः तत्त्वों का विभाग 3 तरह से किया गया है —

1-प्रकृति –भोग्या

2-जीव —भोक्ता

3–ब्रह्म —प्रेरक

–“भोक्ता भोग्यं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा सर्वं प्रोक्तं त्रिविधं ब्रह्ममेतत्”

—श्वेताश्वतरोपनिषद्,1/12,

जीव को ब्रह्म अर्थात् परमात्मा तक पहुंचना है ।

प्रकृति 24 तत्त्वमयी हैं –पथिवी आदि 5महाभूत + 5 शब्दादि तन्मात्रायें 

+5 वाक् आदि कर्मेन्द्रियां +5 नेत्रादि ज्ञानेन्द्रियां +मन +1अहंकार 

+1महत्+1अव्यक्त =24,

इसी को सांख्यकारिका में इस प्रकार परिगणित किया गया है —

“प्रकृतेर्महांस्ततोऽहंकारस्तस्माद् गणश्च षोडशकः ।

तस्मादपि षोडशकात् पञ्चभ्यः पञ्चभूतानि ।। –22,

प्रकृति से महत्तत्त्व उससे अहंकार, पुनः सात्विक अहंकार से 11 इन्द्रियां 

और तामस अहंकार से 5 तन्मात्रायें पुनः इनसे आकाशादि पञ्च महाभूतों 

की उत्पत्ति होती है ।

अब जीवों को स्व स्व कर्मानुसार प्राप्त होने वाले लोक हैं –14,

तल+वितल +सुतल+तलातल+रसातल +महातल+पाताल=7

भूः+भुवः+स्वः+महः+जनः+तपः+सत्य=7,

अब 24+14=38, हुआ।

अब इस 38 संख्या में परिगणित प्रकृति के बाद आया जीव ।

अर्थात् 38(प्रकृति)+1(जीव) =39,

अब जीव के बाद है परमात्मा अर्थात् 39वां जीव +1परमात्मा =40,

इस 40वें तत्त्व परमात्मा को दृष्टि में रखकर ही गोस्वामी जी ने इसका नाम 

” हनुमान चालीसा ” रखा ।
इसीलिए इसका पाठ करने वाले के लिए लिखते हैं कि वह अन्त में 


भगवान् के धाम जाता है —

“अन्तकाल रघुबर पुर जाई । “

वस्तुतः भगवद्भक्त भक्तिसुख के सम्मुख मुक्ति का भी निरादर कर देते हैं– 

मुक्ति निरादर भगति लुभाने । –मानस-

सालोक्यसार्ष्टिसामीप्यसारूप्यैकत्वमप्युत ।

दीयमानं न गृह्णन्ति विना मत्सेवनं जनाः । ।

—भागवत,3/29/13,

भगवान् कहते हैं कि मेरे भक्त सालोक्य, सार्ष्टि,सामीप्य, सारूप्य और 

सायुज्य इन मुक्तियों में किसी भी मुक्ति को देने पर ग्रहण नही करते ।

अत एव गोस्वामी जी चालीसा पाठ का फल लिखते हैं —

“जहां जन्म हरिभक्ति कहाई “

अर्थात् जो भक्त मुक्ति नहीं चाहते पर भक्ति ही चाहते हैं उनका निर्देश उक्त 

पंक्ति से किया गया ।

भागवत में एक एक फल की प्राप्ति हेतु एक एक देवता की उपासना 

बतलाकर शुकदेव जी ने कहा कि —

चाहे कामनाशून्य हो या सर्वकामनायुक्त अथवा मोक्ष की कामना हो ऐसा 

उदारचेता तीव्र भक्तियोग से परमात्मा की उपासना करे —

“अकामः सर्वकामो वा मोक्षकाम उदारधीः ।

तीव्रेणभक्तियोगेन यजेत पुरुषं परम् । । “

—भागवत,2/3/10,

इसी तथ्य को चालीसा में —

“हनुमत सेइ सर्व सुख करई “

इस वाक्य से दर्शाया गया ।

अतः इसका “हनुमान चालीसा” नामकरण अनेक रहस्यों को ध्यान में 

रखकर पूज्यपाद गोस्वामी जी ने किया है ।

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